Read Tewari's take on Planck's Constant and the Photon.
Here's Space Vortex Theory's take on "Action at a Distance", or the force fields between cosmic bodies:
“Action at a Distance” — Newton's discovery of gravity had a mathematical treatment without a physical explanation and famous scientists realized this fact. Despite Descartes’ bold statement that gravity on earth is caused by the pressure of ether, which as a vortex encloses the earth causing diurnal rotation, even Cartesian scientists, Leibniz and Huygens, waited for a physical explanation. Meanwhile, scientists coined a phase "Action at a Distance" meaning that force between two bodies can be transmitted even when space between them is empty and void, as believed by Newton. Kepler believed that planets moved due to magnetic field from the Sun. Descartes conceived cosmic ether vortex carrying the planets because action at a distance was considered impossible. By deriving gravity fields of planets, sun and galaxy, by the respective space vortices around these cosmic bodies Descartes’ concepts have been fully proven (Space Vortex Theory). Thus, “Action at a Distance” ought to be done away with.